By Alexander Kokhanovsky(eds.)
Chapter 1 creation to Airborne Measurements of the Earth surroundings and floor (pages 1–5): Ulrich Schumann, David W. Fahey, Dr. Manfred Wendisch and Dr. Jean?Louis Brenguier
Chapter 2 dimension of airplane kingdom and Thermodynamic and Dynamic Variables (pages 7–75): Jens Bange, Marco Esposito, Donald H. Lenschow, Philip R. A. Brown, Volker Dreiling, Andreas Giez, Larry Mahrt, Szymon P. Malinowski, Alfred R. Rodi, Raymond A. Shaw, Holger Siebert, Herman Smit and Martin Zoger
Chapter three In Situ hint gasoline Measurements (pages 77–155): Jim McQuaid, Hans Schlager, Maria Dolores Andres?Hernandez, Stephen Ball, Agnes Borbon, Steve S. Brown, Valery Catoire, Piero Di Carlo, Thomas G. Custer, Marc von Hobe, James Hopkins, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Thomas Rockmann, Anke Roiger, Fred Stroh, Jonathan Williams and Helmut Ziereis
Chapter four In Situ Measurements of Aerosol debris (pages 157–223): Andreas Petzold, Paola Formenti, Darrel Baumgardner, Ulrich Bundke, Hugh Coe, Joachim Curtius, Paul J. DeMott, Richard C. Flagan, Markus Fiebig, James G. Hudson, Jim McQuaid, Andreas Minikin, Gregory C. Roberts and Jian Wang
Chapter five In Situ Measurements of Cloud and Precipitation debris (pages 225–301): Dr. Jean?Louis Brenguier, William D. Bachalo, Patrick Y. Chuang, Biagio M. Esposito, Jacob Fugal, Timothy Garrett, Jean?Francois Gayet, Hermann Gerber, Andy Heymsfield, Dr. Alexander Kokhanovsky, Alexei Korolev, R. Paul Lawson, David C. Rogers, Raymond A. Shaw, Walter Strapp and Manfred Wendisch
Chapter 6 Aerosol and Cloud Particle Sampling (pages 303–341): Martina Kramer, Cynthia Twohy, Markus Hermann, Armin Afchine, Suresh Dhaniyala and Alexei Korolev
Chapter 7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (pages 343–411): Dr. Manfred Wendisch, Peter Pilewskie, Birger Bohn, Anthony Bucholtz, Susanne Crewell, Chawn Harlow, Evelyn Jakel, ok. Sebastian Schmidt, Rick Shetter, Jonathan Taylor, David D. Turner and Martin Zoger
Chapter eight Hyperspectral distant Sensing (pages 413–456): Eyal Ben?Dor, Daniel Schlapfer, Antonio J. Plaza and Tim Malthus
Chapter nine LIDAR and RADAR Observations (pages 457–526): Jacques Pelon, Gabor Vali, Gerard Ancellet, Gerhard Ehret, Pierre H. Flamant, Samuel Haimov, Gerald Heymsfield, David Leon, James B. Mead, Andrew L. Pazmany, Alain Protat, Zhien Wang and Mengistu Wolde
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Extra resources for Airborne Measurements for Environmental Research: Methods and Instruments
They reported that the composition of the atmosphere does not change with decreasing pressure (increasing altitude). Manned balloons continued to be used throughout the next couple of centuries with the obvious advantage of being able to follow an air mass and thus allowing very detailed measurements in a small volume of air, but with the disadvantage of limited sampling statistics. In the early 1930s, Heinz Lettau and Werner Schwerdtfeger made direct measurements of vertical wind velocity in the lowest 4 km of the troposphere from a balloon using a combination of a rate-of-climb meter to keep the balloon height constant and a sensitive anemometer to measure the vertical air velocity relative to the balloon.
Vibration from turbulence or engine operation is also a concern. With the application of good materials and structural engineering principles in the design and construction phases, instruments are generally able 3 4 1 Introduction to Airborne Measurements of the Earth Atmosphere and Surface to maintain high measurement quality under these conditions. Lightning strikes are a physical threat when sampling near convective cloud systems. These systems are of signiﬁcant scientiﬁc interest because of their chemical and dynamical properties.
Another important consideration is aircraft turbulence encountered both in clear air and in convective cloud systems and lightning strikes. In turbulence, aircraft instruments (and crew members) are exposed to rapid and often large accelerations in all three dimensions. Vibration from turbulence or engine operation is also a concern. With the application of good materials and structural engineering principles in the design and construction phases, instruments are generally able 3 4 1 Introduction to Airborne Measurements of the Earth Atmosphere and Surface to maintain high measurement quality under these conditions.