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By John L. Hayes

Publication by means of Hayes, John L.

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Extra resources for A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts (Aids and Research Tools in Ancient Near Eastern Studies, No 5)

Sample text

More probably, there may be a complex set of morphological and syntactical rules governing deletion of 1nl; it has been posited, for example, that 1nl is only used (and so only expressed in writing) to resolve possibly ambiguous cases. n is always present, unless there is a specific reason for its absence. ). This presumed consistency must be taken with a grain of salt. After all these obligatory and optional prefixes, comes the verbal root, du in this particular case. The root in Sumerian appears to be invariable.

During the Ur III period, there were many specifically royal building projects. Building inscriptions of Ur-Nammu have been found at Ur, Eridu, Larsa, Nippur, and Uruk. He was responsible for building (and rebuilding) the large sacred area at Ur, consisting of several structures. The most famous of these is its ziggurat, the best preserved ziggurat in all of Mesopotamia: its base measures some 60 x 40 meters. It was repaired by several later Mesopotamian rulers. ) The following drawing is Woolley's reconstruction of the ziggurat.

7. 0, "he built". This line contains the verbal phrase. The verb in Sumerian works rather differently than the verb in the Semitic or Indo-European languages. A finite verb form in Sumerian consists of a series of verbal prefixes, followed by a verbal root, then followed by a smaller series of verbal suffixes. Certain of these affixes are obligatory, while others are optional. Because of the general uncertainty of Sumerian grammar, the precise number of prefixes occurring before the verbal root is unsure.

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