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By W. E. Knowles Middleton

This historical past of the thermometer comprises controversy approximately its invention, the tale of alternative scales, Fahrenheit and centigrade, and the background of the slow medical then well known knowing of the idea that of temperature. no longer until eventually 1800 did humans drawn to thermometers start to see basically what they have been measuring, and the impetus for bettering thermometry got here principally from examine of the weather―the liquid-in-glass thermometer grew to become the meteorologist's device ahead of that of the chemist or physicist. this glorious introductory examine follows the advance of indicating and recording thermometers until eventually fresh instances, emphasizing meteorological applications.

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In his 1979 paper, Kellogg predicted future polar and global surface temperature changes in two scenarios involving “low” and “high” greenhouse gas emission levels. His high scenario, which involved accelerating greenhouse gas emissions, has been close to the observed emissions growth since 1979. Strangely, Kellogg predicted that future temperatures would rise in linear (increasing at a steady rate) fashion, even though he anticipated essentially the same exponential (accelerating) atmospheric carbon dioxide increase as Broecker did in his 1975 study.

Unfortunately, we’re now in the process of destabilizing the climate by rapidly increasing the greenhouse effect and throwing the Earth’s energy balance out of whack. We’re running a very dangerous experiment; we don’t know how it will turn out, but all signs point to dangerous consequences. Scientists from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany,14 the Met Office Hadley Centre in the United Kingdom,15 the Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science in Switzerland,16 the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Colorado,17 and the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS)18 are among those investigating the climate consequences of a possible new grand solar minimum by using global climate models.

The Astounding Accuracy of Early Climate Models 23 Sawyer referenced the work by Guy Callendar in the late 1930s and early 1940s, in which Callendar estimated that the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere had increased by about 10 percent over the prior 100 years. Sawyer also referenced “the Keeling Curve,” which included continuous reliable measurements of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere beginning in 1958. Compared to measurements of human carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels, Sawyer noted that only about half of those human emissions were remaining in the atmosphere.

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