Download A History of Modern Computing (2nd Edition) by Paul E. Ceruzzi PDF

By Paul E. Ceruzzi

This enticing background covers sleek computing from the advance of the 1st digital electronic machine in the course of the dot-com crash. the writer concentrates on 5 key moments of transition: the transformation of the pc within the overdue Nineteen Forties from a really good medical tool to a advertisement product; the emergence of small platforms within the past due Nineteen Sixties; the start of private computing within the Nineteen Seventies; the unfold of networking after 1985; and, in a bankruptcy written for this version, the interval 1995-2001. the hot fabric specializes in the Microsoft antitrust go well with, the increase and fall of the dot-coms, and the arrival of open resource software program, relatively Linux. in the chronological narrative, the booklet lines numerous overlapping threads: the evolution of the computer's inner layout; the impression of financial tendencies and the chilly conflict; the long term function of IBM as a participant and as a objective for upstart marketers; the expansion of software program from a hidden aspect to an enormous personality within the tale of computing; and the routine factor of where of data and computing in a democratic society. the point of interest is at the usa (though Europe and Japan input the tale at an important points), on computing in line with se instead of on functions comparable to synthetic intelligence, and on structures that have been offered commercially and put in in amounts.

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All transfers of data had to pass through a single register in the machine’s processor, which led to slow operation for tasks requiring heavy use of I/O. However, the 701’s lightweight plastic tape could start and stop much faster than the UNIVAC’s metal tape and thus speed up those operations. The tape drive also employed an ingenious vacuum-column mechanism, invented by James Wiedenhammer, which allowed the tape to start and stop quickly without tearing. 36 Chapter 1 For scientific and engineering problems, the 701’s unbalanced I/O was not a serious hindrance.

61 The Air Force noted that the machine did the job in one day, replacing a battery of punched card equipment. Some UNIVACs performed classified weapons work in the spirit of the one-of-a-kind computers that preceded them. UNIVAC 5, installed at the Lawrence Livermore Labs in April 1953, was one of those. But even that machine did at least one calculation that was not for the purpose of weapons designs. In November 1952, before it was shipped to California, Remington Rand used it to predict Eisenhower’s victory over Adlai Stevenson in the 1952 presidential election.

Eventually, however, customers applied the 701 to the same kinds of jobs the UNIVAC was doing: logistics for a military agency, financial reports, actuarial reports, payrolls (for North American Aviation), and even predicting the results of a presidential election for network television. )77 Unlike the UNIVAC, the 701’s central processor handled control of the slow input/output (I/O) facilities directly. All transfers of data had to pass through a single register in the machine’s processor, which led to slow operation for tasks requiring heavy use of I/O.

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