By Fahad H. Al Jumah
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Extra resources for A Comparative Study of Metaphor in Arabic and English: General Business Writing With Teaching Implications
To paraphrase Lakoff and Johnson (1980), metaphors are thus a means of expressing and understanding one object or phenomenon in terms of another. Conceptual metaphors are the actual embodiments of daily experience that are inseparable from the body or person that had experienced them (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). Lakoff (1993) considered metaphors as attributes of human conceptual systems. By a process known as conceptual blending, Turner and Fauconnier (1995) claimed that we can see how metaphors create a new domain out of two previously distinct ones.
Different disciplines have already begun to recognize the crucial role that metaphors play in their discourse. This has led to many inquiries, as scholars from as diverse fields as the military, economics, politics, sociology and pure and applied sciences have begun to analyze the conceptual foundations of terminology which had become accepted as integral in their respective academic lexicons. Metaphors are largely context-based (Katz, 1996); given this, a study of the particular use of metaphor in a given field often reveals something of the world view of the field’s practitioners.
Lakoff and Johnson claimed that philosophy is impossible without metaphors, and they 17 clearly feel that one can extend this idea into other systems of social thought. In fact, Lakoff has written extensively in recent years about conceptual metaphors that he sees as underlying political positions; Lakoff (2002) links a ‘strict father’ viewpoint with conservative political positions, and contrasts this with a ‘nurturing parent’ metaphor operating subtly to motivate and support liberal positions.